出典: 近畿大学 2016年度（平成25年度）推薦入試（一般公募）11月21日実施分 Ⅶ
When promoting a product around the world, it benefits companies to understand local customs in detail. Knowing what appeals to potential customers, as well as knowledge of the “do’s and don’ts” of each market, can help a product to be successful.
When it comes to the name of the product, the most important thing to consider is the local language. It may seem obvious, but companies often make mistakes. For example, Coca Cola tried to write their name in Chinese as蝌蝌口肯蝋(Ke-kou-ke-la). However, they soon found out this meant “Bite The Wax Tadpole*.” Of course, this sounded so silly that the company had to take down all the posters! The name was later changed into more appropriate Chinese characters(可口可樂) meaning, “The more you drink, the more fun you will have.”
There are other things to think about, too. Different traditions mean that even simple things like colors or numbers can affect the success of a product. For example, in some cultures there are unlucky colors, such as black in Japan or white in China. Some cultures think that certain numbers are unlucky. Many hotels in the USA or the UK do not have a room 13 or 13th floor. Japanese airlines do not have the seat numbers 4 or 9. It would be very unwise to use these unlucky colors or numbers in your product or advertising.
Finally, different cultures have different concepts of relationships between men and women. It may make certain pictures unsuitable for some cultures. For example, though it is common to see pictures of couples kissing each other on posters in the USA, such images would make Muslims in the Middle East very embarrassed.
Even when a product is the same, its sales success depends on how appropriately and effectively it appeals to people in different countries. Knowing such things is the golden rule of doing global business. So when preparing to do business in a foreign country, you should investigate the language and customs there. An American president once said that the money you earn depends on the knowledge you learn in life.
ア. Deep knowledge about customers in different cultures has little to do with the successful promotion of a product.
イ. It is essential that companies all around the world promote their products in accordance with their own country’s culture.
ウ. Knowing either a local market’s rules or its customers is enough for a product to sell successfully worldwide.
エ. Understanding local traditions offers some advantages when companies try to sell products outside of their own countries.
ア. Language differences often cause misunderstandings of the real intentions of companies that attempt to sell their products in foreign countries.
イ. The Coca Cola company modified its Chinese name after failing to consider the meaning of the name it originally created.
ウ. The Coca Cola company was prompt to realize the mistake they made after choosing the Chinese name of their product.
エ. When the Coca Cola company first translated its product’s name into Chinese, the name expressed the joy Coca Cola brings.
ア. A lot of hotels in America intentionally skip a certain odd number when assigning floors with numbers.
イ. According to traditions in Japan, all numbers that people associate with bad luck are larger than 10.
ウ. Belief that the number 13 is unlucky is limited to a single country in the world. エ. Japanese airline companies show no consideration of superstitions when numbering seats.
ア. Companies’ use of unlucky numbers can be seen as a sign of their appropriate business judgment.
イ. Factors such as colors and numbers, according to each culture’s tradition, can influence a product’s success.
ウ. What is considered to be an unlucky color by Japanese differs from the one regarded as unlucky by Chinese.
エ. When companies advertise products, it is advisable for them to take into account the significance of colors and numbers.
ア. A kissing scene would be considered shameful in some cultures while not unusual in others.
イ. Pictures of women kissing men would not likely be approved of by Muslims or by American people.
ウ. Public posters frequently seen in one country can always be safely displayed in another country.
エ. What makes people feel uneasy is shared by all countries regardless of cultural differences.
ア. A successful business requires uniform standards even when a product is being sold in another country.
イ. Effectively making a product appealing to people in foreign countries is irrelevant to its sales.
ウ. Someone said what you learn during your lifetime determines the wealth that you are able to acquire.
エ. There is no such thing as a golden rule to guide companies to succeed in global business.
ア. Knowledge of universally accepted practices alone will ensure a successful sale of a product.
イ. In foreign countries, whether product names are properly represented or not may affect potential customers.
ウ. Superstitions about numbers are completely overlooked by business companies in the UK.
エ. In Muslim countries, cultural differences do not interfere with the advertisement of a product.
オ. When companies apply business strategies in the global marketplace, knowing foreign customers’ attitudes is insignificant.
カ. Language and customs are indispensable factors which need to be considered if one wishes to make a profit in global business.
キ. It has been said that how much you learn in your lifetime is affected by the amount of money you earn.